Pedro Ruiz, the Chief Executive of Vivafit clubs, the Portuguese circuit-based gym chain for women contacted me this week to say they have just opened their 100th club. The expansion of smaller-scale club formats seem more resilient in recessionary times as sites are easier to secure and they require less development capital. Vivafit has added 15 clubs since November 2008 (in seven months). These are also franchise-operated clubs with shared commercial risk which is another reason why they can expand during a market down-turn. The company is now moving overseas with its first clubs already trading in Spain.